The Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin is the main attraction of Nizhny Novgorod. This is the fortress around which a big city grew up. The Kremlin is located on a high hill opposite the point where two rivers meet - the Volga and the Oka.
The first wooden Kremlin appeared in the city in the 13th century. But already in 1374 the first attempts were made to build a white stone Kremlin. The fortress played an important part: there was a permanent army monitoring the situation around, so that in case of danger to take action against enemy raids in time. In order to strengthen the defensive function of the fortress in 1500 the question again arose about the cardinal strengthening of the walls. At the very beginning of the XVI century the Italian architect Pietro Francesco (he was known in Nizhny Novgorod as Pyotr Fryazin) directed from Moscow started the work on construction of the stone Kremlin. The construction of the entire complex of protective structures took almost a quarter of a century. In the XVI century the Kremlin was besieged four times but was never taken. Since the beginning of the XVIII century the fortress has lost its defensive significance. The fortress wall of the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin stretches for two kilometers. According to the architect's intention, 13 towers were placed on the perimeter. Curiously, after a large-scale reconstruction of the XVIII-XIX centuries the Kremlin changed its appearance. Its walls were painted white, and the towers - red. Only after 1917 the Kremlin once again became brick- red with green roofs of towers. Now the territory of the Kremlin is a monument of architecture. There are many expositions here and there is an opportunity to walk on the walls of the fortress. From the walls there are magnificent panoramic views of the city and the Volga. Bodies of city and regional authorities are also located in the buildings on the territory of the Kremlin.