The museum presents the archaeological heritage of Cologne and its surrounding area from the Palaeolithic Era to the early Middle Ages. In 1941, during the construction of a bomb shelter, Dionysus mosaic was discovered in Cologne. Since then, it takes a special place in the Roman-Germanic museum. Historians have established that the mosaic decorated the floor of a rich villa, which belonged to an ancient Roman in the III century BC.
Next to the god of wine his sacred animal, the spotted panther, Saturn, and the maenads are painted. Another exhibit - the "mosaic of philosophers." It refers to the year 320 and on it the thinkers of the ancient world – Diogenes, Plato and Aristotle – can be seen.
A great place in the collection is held by glassware. A cage cup covered with the finest reticulation contains an inscription in Greek "Drink to live forever." Also, an attention attracts sculptural portrait of the founder of Cologne, Agrippina.